What is “3” or THREE ?||significance in Mythology||

3, tri, threelogo

The number three symbolizes many aspects of creation:

a. The triple qualities of sattva, rajas and tamas,

b. The three layers of nature, light, fire and darkness,

c. The three states of being immanent, transcendent and the absolute,

d. The triple division of time, past, present and future,

e. The three periods of the day, morning, noon and evening,

f. The three worlds of bhur, bhuva and the swaha, or the three worlds of heaven, earth and the hell,

g. The three phases of life, young age, middle age and old age,

h. The three paths to self-realization, the path of knowledge, the path of love and the path of action,

i. The three types of breath, the in breath, the out breath and the held breath,

j. The three steps of Vishnu in his incarnation of Vamana,

k. The mystic syllable AUM consisting of three parts,

l. The three duties of a Brahmin, sacrifice, study of the Vedas and charity,

m. Triangle or the female genital organ,

n. The triple control of thought, word and deed,

o. The three staves of a sanyasin or ascetic,

p. The control of body, mind and action by an ascetic,

q. The three lines of ash worn by the Saivites on their foreheads.

Buddhi is the third tattva. Buddhi is rationality, the discriminating power where by we know the right from the wrong, the appropriate from the inappropriate.


“Separation from loved ones” ~ Is it planned to hurt you? ||TheSpiritual Insight||

Loved ones – Family, Friends, Lover, Roommates, and many more. In the span of our life, we come across many people. Some of them tend to get very close to us. They become so close to us that we can’t imagine our lives without them.


This association of closeness starts with the family. Starting from the infancy, until we reach the age to go to school or move out of the family premises, the family is our world. As we start to mingle with society, we start making friends. Then comes batchmates, roommates, colleagues, junior and seniors. In this way, we create a haven for ourselves in which all ships of our emotions, feelings, achievements, losses, sentiments and identity are harboured.

Having close and loved ones is a part of life. Man is a social animal and without socializing, we will certainly break a great law of the ecosystem. As we accept people coming to our lives, we have to accept time and the stages of life as they unveil themselves in due course of our lives.


As the picture shows, we all have to cross the various stages of life. The stages can be named as infancy, childhood, adolescence, youth, adulthood, middle age and senior years of life. When we transcend through these ages, we come across various stages of separation too. Let’s talk about those sequentially –

a. Infancy to Childhood-Adolescence: In this stage, we break ourselves from the family borders and we start mingling with people outside our homes. We get enrolled in schools and come across many persons. They are our classmates, teachers, seniors, school facility and utility staffs etc. Our vision towards life expands as now we have more tasks to do apart from playing around as we did in our infancy.

Separation: In this stage, we get separated from the joy of full-time association with our family as we had in our infancy. A 5-6 hours detachment from family is the separation.


b. Childhood-Adolescence to Youth: In this phase, most of us leave school and our hometown for further studies or job. We get detached from our home, childhood friends, and most of the near and dear ones.

Separation: Physical distance from roots. Detachment from home, neighbourhood and best of best friends. Lots of memory keeps us in nostalgia for a longer period of time.


c. Childhood-Adolescence to Adulthood-Middle Age-Senior Age: In this phase, we switch jobs, move to various locations as per the requirement of our jobs or business.

Separation: Separation from colleagues, best office pals, juniors and subordinates.

But, as we keep on growing, in spite of all these separations, we grow much closer to ourselves. We learn how to tackle the pain of separation. The graph of the intensity of pain at the time of separation tends to fall. The graph happens to be like –


Everything goes to the subconscious part of our brain as our consciousness gradually gets focused on career development and self-growth.

If we think deeply, aren’t we compromising somewhere? We are compromising with the most beautiful memories to our strive towards success. We are compromising the principles of life we learnt with modern superficial aesthetics. We are compromising humane feelings to be on par with the corporate culture. Whatever we are doing we are doing so for our betterment and personal gains. It is just like fighting with your own self or with your own shadow.


The grief of separation in the initial stages of life shatters the heart. It’s true. After the first phase of separation in the adolescence-youth stage, we feel lonely initially, we miss the beds of our home, we miss the foods from mom’s kitchen, but gradually we get accustomed and mould ourselves to the trend we stay at that time. It is during this stage of transformation that we start compromising with our memories. Memories include everything. They also include the teachings, preachings and ethical training since our childhood.


Now let us take the example of a mango. It buds out in the form of a flower. Then it faces storms. Most of the buds get detached from the branch. The remaining ones grow to the form of the fruit. Either it is plucked by someone or it falls as soon as it ripens. In both cases, the mango gets detached from the tree. From the root of its origin, it departs for an unknown destination. But wherever it goes, its nutritive value sustains the consumer with satisfaction and the seed leads to the growth of another mango tree. More or less, all trees have the same lifecycle.

||The Spiritual Insight||


If we take ourselves to be the mango, we can have some spiritual inference. Even though the fruit gets detached from its root origin, it preserves its taste and later grows to be another tree to be the source of numerous replica of its own.

Similarly, we must try to preserve all the values and ethics which we learnt from our parents, teachers and other seniors. We keep on gaining knowledge and experience, but, we should never forget the base. As we move out of our home, we meet many people, get introduced to vivid cultures and traditions, we expose ourselves to various thoughts and philosophies. We must respect all vividness we come across, but should never forget our own roots. That is what makes us unique.



In the multitude of changing trends, cultural attributes and social parameters, we often find our base value to be orthodox or outdated. But if we analyse deeply, everything around is based on those basic rules only. We can never alter basics, we can add value to them or modify them according to our level of adaptation.

Related image

If the mango starts compromising its taste with that of a pomegranate or an apple, it will lose its speciality. Similarly, if we start compromising with the basic rules of humanity or the basic laws of life, at some point of time, we might not find anyone by our side. That will be the point where a person will get separated from his or her own self and will be bereaved of all delights life had planned to offer.


Hence, separation is a law of nature. We must embrace that heartfully with the vision of spreading the values we inherit from our family, learnt from our teachers and gained from our society in a positive and constructive way. That is the base of being optimistic. That is the base of recreating your own self in others. That is the base how you train yourself the way to live!

Image result for spiritual awakening


|| LAWS ‘°&°’ RULES ||

MAN – Homo Sapiens – after travelling a long stage of evolution series, has reached this current form which although makes it belong to the Animal Kingdom, yet, is quite superior than the other species and genus present in the said taxonomy.

MAN – a social animal, who strives hard and always maintains to make himself comfortable in society, either by virtue of his qualities, nobilities, extravagances or status.

As mankind has evolved to the current standard of physical embodiment and mental level, similar is human life, which evolves from the stage of being an infant to that of getting matured enough to face the worldly challenges.

In this due course of development from infant to child then to teenager then to youth stage till the stage of retirement, human life is governed by many laws, rules, codes of ethics and compliance, which, being a social animal, everyone is bound to follow or else, he or she falls in the category and classification of that segment where there lies no difference between the most elite specie of the planet with the most inferior specie of the same.

Be it in the mode of education, profession and practice, sports and adventure, habits and etiquette; everywhere there are mentors, incubators and expert method accelerators who whole-heartedly takes the responsibility of shaping the life of any human in the moulds of their so-called certified, accredited and renowned functional tools and method, so that, the person reaches the highest levels of success and enriched stages of life.

All these methods of training, guidance and incubation can be luciferous only if the attendant of the said workshops or programmes or systems devote themselves effectively and stays at par with rules and protocols of the methodology they have opted for.

Starting from running a government till the cremation or burial deeds after death of a person, the entire system moves upon the wheels of rules, regulations, laws and ethics.

To devote oneself or to dedicate oneself for some cause or reason, irrespective of the reason being personal or social, one needs highest standards of mental determination and most importantly, the reason should fit and match with the choice, lifestyle and taste and preference of the person committed to the target.

Once the system or method or goal diverts or deviates from the expectations and preferences of the learner, it perforates and perfoliate all the designs and plans, and, that is the point, where, learners, irrespective of their merits and intellectual levels turns into activists.

As it is said often that THE POWER COMES FROM WITHIN.. it certainly points out to the fact that a person, for better educational, value and social development, requires spiritual development at the early phases of life.

Its true that rules, laws, codes of ethics and compliance are necessary for life; but it should guide life for enriched and enlightened livelihood rather ruling life out of its main motive. ~~ TheSpiritual

Hence, it is necessary to get versed with few spiritual laws and rules, which if gets into the blood and heart, following any type of earthly rules will be very easy and comfortable.

Out of all the above mentioned laws, Law of Karma is having a great importance as it’s impact is very instantaneous and justified. Karma means deed, and the law simply speaks “as you sow, so shall you reap!”

This Law of Karma constitutes of 11 more parts which categorises the segments of the deeds and activities of human.

All these laws teaches and trains a person to be noble, humble, patient, generous, compassionate, honest and modest warding off psychic evils like fear, rage, greed, lust and cruelty.

Persons with the positive qualities and an attenuation and regards for these laws will surely come in resonance with the positive vibrations of the universe and will certainly pave his path towards success.

To conclude, the power lies within a person, rules and laws can just guide a person or restrict a person from doing something wrong or unlawful. These things are not having the power to transform a person as transformation comes from realisation and this in turn comes from values, will and self-confidence.

|| Science behind TEMPLES || ~~ Vedic Architecture!

Millions of temples of varied shapes, sizes and architecture homing different Gods and Goddesses with or of various customs and worships are present throughout the world, primarily in India. But all temples are not constructed in Vedic Way following our Ancient Hindu Temple principles.

In the modern world of ours, it’s difficult to find most suitable vacant location in cities for construction of temples and in some places a lot of distance is to be travelled to reach temples built in Vedic Ways. Out of respect, love and belief, construction of temples started in localities so that devotees can visit temples frequently and worship God.


A temple should be constructed in a place where Earth’s magnetic wave path passes through densely. These places could be in the outskirts of city or town or village or in the centre of most populated residential location or on a hilltop, in a cave or on a small island in the middle of a river.

Temples should be constructed in a place where positive energy is abundantly available from the Magnetic and Electrical wave distribution of North to South Pole of Earth’s polar thrust. The main idol of God is placed in the centre of this location. This core centre is known as Garbhagriha or Moolasthanam.

The core centre of temple is the place where the Magnetic waves of Earth are found to be maximum. It is a well known fact that copper plates inscribed with Vedic Scripts or Shlokas are buried beneath the main Idol. Purpose of these plates is to absorb the Earth’s magnetic waves and radiate it to the surroundings.

Devotees or persons who regularly visits temples and walks clockwise around the Main Idol or the Garbhagriha receives the Beamed Magnetic Waves and his or her body absorbs it. Although it is a very slow process, yet regular and frequent visit to temples helps in absorption of more positive energy and scientifically, it is the positive energy which we all need for a healthy life.

Three essential elements in a temple•°∆°•
Three principal elements in every temple are Sthala (temple site); Teertha (Temple tank) and Moorthy/ Murti (the deity or idol). A temple could also be associated with a tree, called the Sthala Vriksham as in many temples we can find sacred ashoka and banyan trees.

Certain areas on earth are more sacred than others, some on account of their situation, others because of their sparkling waters, and others because of the association or habitation of saintly people.Mahabharata, Anusanana Parva 108: 16-18

Temples are often located in a kshetra or an energy field which contains three essential aspects for sustaining and transmitting powerful spiritual energies.

The first of these aspects is the moorthy, the idol which contains the energy made of a special material that can reflect and hold energy for sustained periods of time without disintegrating.

The second is sthalam, the energy field. Certain locations serve as natural energy centers depending on their geological positioning, presence of minerals in the earth or underground running water. Other fields are those which have become energy hubs because of the continuous worship and spiritual activities there over prolonged periods of time. Any space which has been sanctified by prayer and rituals eventually evolves into a sthalam.

The third is teertham, a sacred water body. Most kshetras are located by or near rivers, the ocean or mineral water springs.

The best location for a temple is at a teertha as the water in a teertha, which is continuously exposed to the powerful energies of a kshetra, is actually a superconductor of cosmic energy.

A teertha is a holy place, a crossing place for the “upward journey of the soul and a place for the downward crossing of higher entities, who sometimes descend to this world for the good of humankind“. The Sanskrit word teertha comes from tri, to cross. One meaning is to cross a ford or a shallow part of a body of water. Teertha also symbolizes crossing over one’s karmas.

Crossing the water or crossing the ocean is an important symbol in Vedic literature for attaining liberation. Many temples are located by or near rivers, oceans, or mineral water springs, and if not, they will have a large water tank or pool. It is quite obvious that sea-water and mineral water have powerful natural electrolytes acting as catalysts for the process of energy transmission to happen. Interestingly, when water is exposed to a high electric potential, it ionizes rapidly. So the water in a teertham or tank, which is continuously exposed to the powerful energies of a kshetra, is actually a superconductor of cosmic energy!

When entering such a water-body, negative energies are cleansed and our body is made ready to absorb positive energy influences. Hence the practice of first taking a dip in the healing water-body before visiting the sanctum of the temple.

Temples radiate energy•°∆°•

A Japanese scientist, Dr. Emoto has carried out research on the power of thoughts and has proved that thoughts have a tangible effect on material objects.

Dr. Emoto took samples of water from the same source, put it in different containers and exposed it to different influences.
To one sample he spoke positive words of love and gratitude and recited Buddhist chants. Over another he spoke negative words of anger, hatred and war. Then he froze the water so that it could be photographed it in its crystalline form.
Beautiful clear crystals, like diamonds formed in the samples exposed to positive energy. With the samples exposed to negative energies, the crystal structure appeared dark, misshapen and ghost like.

Over three hundred experiments conducted by Emoto repeatedly proves the effect of words and thoughts on water that are recorded in his book, Messages From Water.

Water can hold, radiate and respond to your thoughts. When simple water can respond to our thoughts, our vibrations, why not a structure? Why not a temple, why not a stone? It can become alive with our thoughts, our emotions. Our Masters have created so many methods and techniques to hold the positive energy, so that humanity can be helped by that positive energy. The mechanisms or techniques which they created to hold that positive energy and radiate it are Temples.

The mantras, when chanted continuously, the very air vibrates with the pure vibrations
The Masters have installed the energy in the earth elements, in the stone. These are the idols or moorthies. They have installed the same energy in the water. That is teerthas. That is why every Indian temple will have a tank or a river as a teertha. Third they installed the same energy in the fire.

Every Indian temple will have a lamp which is never switched off, is never put off. It will have a lamp or an agni (fire) which will be continuously burning. Next is the air. The very air is filled with the vibrations of mantras. The mantras, when chanted continuously, when they are repeated, the very air vibrates with the pure vibrations. Above all is the space, the ether.

It can be seen in the temple architecture that a dome structure is always created. Whether it is a south Indian or north Indian temple, there is a dome structure.

Temples are batteries to radiate energy~~
The dome structure (of a temple) is created to hold the ether. It is almost like a battery. They say if you can hold one lightning bolt, if you can store one lightning bolt in a battery, if you have some battery or method to store one lightning, you can supply electricity for any city for more than one year. For more than one year you can supply electricity for any city, for any big city. But we don’t have such a system or method; we don’t have that type of batteries.
Temples are the batteries in which enlightened Masters have stored their energy.
Temples are created just to hold enormous energies. When enlightened Masters come to earth, they will install their energy. Our Masters have designed a beautiful battery which can hold this energy and radiate it for thousands of years. Temples are the batteries in which they have stored their energy.

Repetition of mantras charges the whole energy and hence when you go and stand in front of this energy field, when you offer your thoughts, simply the whole thing becomes reality.
The garbha mandirs or temples are high intense energy, potential energy which is created by an enlightened Master and maintained by regular poojas and mantras. Continuous repetition of mantras charges the whole energy, the whole space is kept alive. When you go and stand in front of this energy field, when you offer your thoughts, simply the whole thing becomes reality.

For example, if you are continuously repeating a particular thought, again and again, you will see your body and mind, everything will be directed towards that thought. Same way if you go and stand in front of an energized moorthy, in front of energy space in the temple and create a wish, your whole body and mind will be tuned to that thought. Naturally it will become reality in your lives.

In the temples, two things will happen. You will have the shakti (energy) to make your dreams into reality. You will have the buddhi (wisdom) to realize what you think as reality itself is a dream. Both will happen when you are in energy space. Temples are created to replace an enlightened Master’s presence. When enlightened Masters leave the planet earth, when they leave their body, they wanted a space which can continuously inspire people, which can continuously heal, which can give them the experience of spirituality, which can give them a sacred feeling. That is why they have created these structures.”

Why deities?…loving devotion to the Divine is used as a technique to purify our common emotions of lust..

The question may arise: If all that is required is a structure which will hold and transmit energy, why do we need the form of a particular deity?

There are two reasons for this: One, most of us are not yet so evolved that we can relate directly to the formless cosmic energy. That is why the ‘Personal Divine’ is a concept close to the heart of every devotee. On the Bhakti Marga (the path of devotion), which is one of the four major paths to enlightenment, loving devotion to the Divine is used as a technique to purify our common emotions of lust, jealousy and selfishness. The devotee withdraws the energies wasted in such emotions, and turns them upon the object of his devotion. When the Divine is present before him in a form he can see, touch and relate to, the transmutation becomes an easy and joyful process.

Second, deities in a real kshetra are always carved in the form of ancient masters and enlightened beings. Even though no longer in the body, they can be invoked through the name or form they used while in the physical plane. When we pray to the deity or chants its name, the corresponding divine vibration is automatically awakened, and becomes available on the energy plane to guide and bless us.

Prana Pratishta ~> How temples get energized:-

When the energy is installed inside the vigraha, you can’t call it a statue, it becomes a deity.
There is a beautiful sloka in Taitreya Upanishad. They say from akasha came the vayu, from vayu came the agni. Agniyar apaha, apap pruthvi, prathibyor annam.

From agni came the water, from the water came the earth. From the earth came other things. In the same way, energy is also brought. Energy exists beyond the ether, beyond the space as Atman, atma shakti. Through the visualization or through meditation, the energy is brought to the Akasha shakti or the space.

From there through verbalization or chanting of mantras, it is brought to the air.

From there through the fire rituals, through the homas it is brought to the fire.

From there it is brought to the kumbha, the water.

From there it is brought to the bimba and installed in the idol.

When the energy is installed inside the vigraha, you can’t call it a statue, it becomes a deity.
A moorthy or deity is made of a special material that can reflect and hold energy for sustained periods of time without disintegrating.

The moorthies in a temple are always sculpted or molded from such materials. Such an idol, in which the Cosmic energy has been invoked and ‘bolted in’ through prana pratishta, is called a moorthy. Just as the energy of the sun can be focused through a lens and powerful energy transmission can happen, the consecrated moorthy becomes the lens to focus and radiate intense cosmic energy.

Acting as a ‘spiritual reactor’, the moorthy can radiate this energy over prolonged periods of time, sometimes even centuries!

The importance of Temples•°∆°•..Temples are much more important than any other comfort..

Our ancestors knew the importance of temples. A temple is the place where the culture is alive, where you can relate with others. This is the space in which you can rejuvenate yourself.

Temples are much more important than any other comfort, any other worldly thing. It is much more basic need for our life than anything else. That is why if you see the Indian villages, it will be very funny. The houses will be constructed with ordinary mud and ordinary material. But the temples will be constructed with granite stone. If you go to every village of India, the costliest structure of that village will be the temple.

Temples have played a major role in keeping the social structure alive. It is temples which kept our whole culture alive and our whole structure alive.

||Significance of MANTRAS||~ Spiritual & Scientific essence!

A Mantra is a sound or a certain utterance or a syllable which is having potential of freeing ones mind from its obsessive state.

Nowadays, as everything rests upon proofs, evidences and scientific verifications and certifications; in that context, we can link mantra to vibrations. Our modern science sees and experiences everything around us either in state of matter or energy, and hence, existence as reverberations of energy or different levels of vibrations are very much practical. In that reference, we can deduce that the entire existence is a kind of sound or a complex amalgamation of sounds which in turn establishes a logic that the whole existence is an amalgamation of multiple mantras.

Our ancient and Vedic texts consists of numerous shlokas and mantras of which few have been identified which could be like keys, which if used in a certain prescribed way, can open up a different dimension of life and experience within human body and mind.

Every mantra activates a particular energy in a different part of the body. It is scientifically proven in segments of research on psychology that repetition of any sound results in dullness of mind. Mantra being a syllable, it’s repetition without necessary awareness can convert a mind to be a dull one, but once done with exact understanding and proper awareness, it could be a powerful mean. In correlation with science, it is a very powerful dimension, but if it is imparted without the necessary basis and without creating necessary situations, it can cause lots of damage as it is a subjective science.

Mantra can be prominently defined as Mananat Trayote Iti Mantrah which means, through mantra, one is able to manage dissipation of the mind and is also able to manage to distress his or her mind. Mantras are vibrations and every vibration has a frequency. Certain forms of sound vibration relaxes, whereas certain vibration stimulates. This is evident in music, as some types of music brings peace and some makes the listener move and dance.

Mantra is subtle as the sound vibration of mantra works at the pranic level in the body. For proper understanding, let’s take the mantra Om Namah Shivaya as instance. From the religious perspective, Om Namah Shivaya means I Salute Shiva, whereas from Yogic perspective, following is the inference ~

OM is the Seed mantra of Beej Mantra of Agnya Chakra, the sixth centre.

NA is a sound of the Fifth centre, the Visuddhi Chakra.

MA is a sound of the Fifth centre in the throat.

SHI & VA are the sounds of the Second centre, the Swadhisthana Chakra.

YA is the sound of the heart, the Anahada Chakra.

These are the sounds which constituently formed the Mantra and which corresponds to different chakras in the body. Therefore, in Yogic terms, when Om Namah Shivaya is chanted, it affects and alters the behaviour of the Shakti or power in these psychic centres, while the mind focusses on the image generated within due to one’s cultural beliefs.

Every mantra is having a specific meaning, a specific way of recitation and a specific vibration set. As it is already a proven fact that origin of mantras dates back to the Vedic Era and Vedas are its main source, hence, if we think practicality, Sanskrit or Devanagari was the ongoing linguistic trend of that era and Shruti gyan, meaning learning from hearing and Smriti gyan, meaning learning by remembering and recalling, were the most popular modes of education. Hence, all these shlokas and mantras were given the form of hymns and verses in the language prevalent in the society of that time to facilitate better learning which in turn led to spiritual development as well.

Thus, each Mantra has a meaning which is very prominently and precisely embedded in the mantra itself, but, the power of mantra resides within the yogi or the Human reciting the Mantra.

|| Salutations of GENIUSes to VEDAS & UPANISHADS ||

Almost all of us know about the achievements and glory brought to the scientific development for mankind by never-to-be-born-again scientists, physicists, astronomers, mathematicians and philosophers like Nikola Tesla, Albert Einstein, W. Heisenberg, Isaac Newton, Erwin Schrödinger, Julius Robert Oppenheimer… All these elite and incomparable legends did all their part to give a boost to better understanding, conception and upliftment to those concepts which were merely a dream for the Human race of their time, such as, Law of Gravitation, Theory of Relativity, Concepts of Quantum Physics, Existence of Metaphysics, Atomic and nuclear phenomena etc. These were just a few hand-picked jewels out of the treasures these personalities have left for us to explore.

But, existence of GENIUS brains, eras before the birth of these aforesaid personalities can’t be denied, and fortunately they were born in India during the Vedic Era.

A huge difference lies between invention and discovery and REDISCOVERY… but the fact is that to accomplish any one of these three an exceptionally superior and functional grey matter is required for which we are bound to salute the elite personalities mentioned before.

Let’s move to the theory of gravitation…

This article of mine is neither having any intention to defame any iconic personality, nor any wish to undermine the effort, hard work and dedication of our ancestors just to bring the reality in front of our eyes from ether, either by discovery or invention or rediscovery.

Following are few accredition and salutations which Vedas and Upanishads received from our worldly geniuses..

Be it Albert Einstein or Nikola Tesla or Issac Newton, none of us are fortunate enough to witness their great works by living in their times; but yet, Stephen Hawking, the genius whose works we know and have witnessed and which makes us proud to claim ourselves to be one of the homosapiens of Hawking’s era, also declared the vastness of Vedas and ancient scriptures.

Hence, there’s nowhere any point to avoid, ignore or abandon the fact that Vedas and Upanishads had something which attracted the attention of such genius brains who are been credited to possess the most smart and intellectual brain of their own time and another fact lies underneath is that to understand and decode those pre-historic scriptures, a stupendously high range of intelligence is required which is not present in most or say majority of us and hence, we substitute our part of creative activities with criticism stuffs whenever any discovery is made.

||ARYABHATIYA||~ Origin of 0 & π!! Many such more from ARYABHATTA!!

Aryabhatiya is a Sanskrit astronomical treatise which is a masterpiece and one of the few known surviving work of the 5th Century Indian Mathematical Genius, Aryabhata. Only three books by Aryabhata still exist today although there is some question as to the authenticity of the third book.

Another book written by Aryabhata is the Arya-siddhanta. This book has been lost and is only known because of the work by other mathematicians. A mathematician working at the same time as Aryabhata mentioned Aryabhata’s work as have later mathematicians such as Bhaskara I and Brahmagupta. The Arya-siddhanta looked at astronomy.

A third book that may have been written by Aryabhata is an Arabic translation that the translator claims was written by Aryabhata but the name of the work in Sanskrit (the language Aryabhata wrote in) is not known. In Arabic, the name of the book is either Al-ntf or Al-nanf.

The Aryabhatiya

The Aryabhatiya is the only book that comes directly from Aryabhata. He wrote the book in verse and there are 108 verses as well as 13 introductory verses. The name of the book came from later commentators and there is a question as to whether Aryabhata actually named the book. Other names given to the book is Ashmakatantra (the treatise from the Ashmaka) as well as Arya-shatas-ashta. Arya-shatas-ashta means Aryabhata’s 108 which refers to the number of verses in the book.

The verses are written in the same style as sutra literature (religious texts) and is very terse. Most of the explanations around Aryabhata’s work comes from his commentators instead of from him. The main commentators of his work were Bhaskara I, who is considered the main scholar of the astronomical school set up by Aryabhata, and Nilakantha Somayaji, who wrote about Aryabhata’s work in the book Aryabhatiya Bhasya in 1465.

An example of Aryabhata’s writing style can be seen in the verse on pi. Aryabhata wrote that to calculate pi, one needed to “Add four to 100, multiply by eight and then add 62,000. By this rule the circumference of a circle of diameter 20,000 can be approached.”

Aryabhata broke the text up into four chapters (called padas). The four chapters are called Gitikapada, Ganitapada, Kalakriyapada, and Golapada.

The first chapter (Gitikapada) consists of 13 verses and looks at large units of time. Aryabhata develops a cosmology that is different from earlier writers and also has a table of sines. In this book, Aryabhata calculated the number of years in a mahayuga. The Hindu religion breaks up time into one thousand cycles. Each cycle is called a mahayuga and Aryabhata claimed that one mahayuga was equal to 4.32 million years.

The second chapter (Ganitapada) consists of 33 verses and looks at calculating the volume and area of different geometrical figures. The chapter also looked at geometric progressions as well as arithmetic. In this chapter, Aryabhata also looked at shadows and sundials, particularly gnomons, the part of a sundial that is used to cast a shadow. The chapter also covers various mathematical equations, such as indeterminate equations, quadratic equations, and simultaneous equations.

The third chapter (Kalakriyapada) consists of 25 verses and looks at various units of time as well as methods to calculate the position of the planets for any given day. The chapter highlights a seven-day week and gives names for the days. The chapter also looked at calculations around the intercalary month. An intercalary month is just an extra month that is used to ensure the seasons keep track with the months.

The last chapter (Golapada) consists of 50 verses and examines properties of celestial sphere. A celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere where the observer is in the center of the sphere and all other celestial objects lie on the sphere. In this chapter, Aryabhata also looks at what is known as the celestial equator, the imaginary line that circles around the celestial sphere—it is basically just Earth’s equator projected into space. Aryabhata also looks at the causes of night and day, the shape of the earth, and zodiac signs.

Mathematical Discoveries

Aryabhata made a number of innovations in his work in mathematics. His work was basically unknown in the West for hundreds of years after his death. It wasn’t until his work had been translated into Latin during the early 1200s that his work became known to Western mathematicians. Once it was translated, it became very influential and many of Aryabhata’s ideas were utilized by European mathematicians. Aryabhata’s work was well known within Islamic mathematical circles and was helpful during the Islamic Golden Age.

Pi (π)

As it seems with most Ancient mathematicians, Aryabhata was also interested in calculating a value for pi. He came to an approximation of pi that was correct to five numbers. In the verse where Aryabhata gives an equation for calculating pi (shown earlier), Aryabhata used the words “can be approached.” One commentator on Aryabhata’s work (Nilakantha Somayaji) stated that the use of the word “approached” means that Aryabhata recognized that his calculation only gave an approximation of pi. Somayaji also believes that the words Aryabhata used shows that Aryabhata recognized that the value of pi is an irrational number (i.e., the number never ends nor repeats itself). This was not proven in Europe until 1761.

Place-Value System and Zero

Aryabhata used a place-value system in his calculation. The place-value system was first seen in the Bakhshali Manuscript, a manuscript of Indian mathematics that was written on birch bark in the third century. The manuscript was found near the village of Bakhshali, which is the reason for the name of the manuscript.

Aryabhata did not use the Brahmi symbol for zero in his work but a French mathematician believed that Aryabhata knew of zero and that its use was implicit in his work. Actually, Aryabhata did not use any Brahmi numerals, which were the number symbols that Indian mathematicians were using at the time. Aryabhata followed the Sanskrit tradition of using letters as numbers. This allowed Aryabhata to write his quantities, such as the table of sines, as a mnemonic (an aid to remembering something).

Indeterminate Equations

Aryabhata was interested in finding Diophantine equations. A Diophantine equation is an equation that has more than one unknown integer (a number that is not a fraction). A simple Diophantine equation would be “ax + by = c”. In this equation a, b, and c are given integers and the x and y integers are unknown.

Aryabhata came up with a method of solving Diophantine equations that is the standard method for solving first order Diophantine equations today. The algorithm is often called the Aryabhata algorithm.


Aryabhata did a lot of work in astronomy as well as mathematics although he is more recognized for his work in mathematics than astronomy; although, his work in astronomy has been influential in the Arab world.

Aryabhata used the Audayaka system in astronomy. In this system, the days begin at dawn on the equator. In one of his astronomical writings that has been lost (but partially reconstructed based on comments in Brahmagupta’s Khandakhadyaka), Aryabhata proposed a model in which the days began at midnight (the ardha-ratrika system).

The Solar System

Aryabhata’s solar system was a geocentric model. This means that the Earth is the center of the solar system.

According to Aryabhata, the sun and the moon move in epicycles (small circles) that orbit around the Earth. The order of the planets from the Earth according to distance are the moon, followed by Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. After Saturn, there are asterisms, which are groups of stars that are highly visible in the night sky.

Size and Rotation of the Earth

Aryabhata was able to calculate a value for the size of the Earth that was only 0.2 percent smaller than the Earth’s actual size. Aryabhata calculated that the circumference of the Earth was 39,968 kilometers whereas the actual circumference size is 40,075 kilometers.

Aryabhata believed that the Earth rotated on its own axis and that the movement of the stars was a result of this rotation. When converted to modern units of time, Aryabhata’s calculation of the time it takes for the Earth to rotate on its axis is almost exactly the same as it has been measured today. He calculated the rotation as taking 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds. The modern calculation is 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.091 seconds.

In calculating the length of the year, Aryabhata is only off by three minutes and twenty seconds. This was most likely the most accurate calculation at the time.


Aryabhata, contrary to popular belief at the time, stated that the moon and the planets shone because of sunlight reflecting off of them. He stated that a lunar eclipse occurred when the moon moved into Earth’s shadow. Aryabhata also looked at the size of the Earth’s shadow and how to calculate the length of a lunar eclipse.


The work done by Aryabhata on calculations concerning calendars are still in use today. They are used to fix the Hindu calendar (Panchanga) and were even used in the Islamic world as the basis for the Jalali calendar.

The works of Aryabhata claimed him name and fame from various famous entities in the medieval era as his works formed the base of numerous complex calculations and derivations and truly, it was he who made India proud with his treatises and doctrines related to Mathematics and Astronomy , hence, again portraying the rich educational and cultural traits of the Ancient civilizations of India.

|| VEDIC INVENTIONS ||~ SAGES were SCIENTISTS °∆° hence proved!!

Vedas – Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva – these four Vedas projects the advancements, richness and infallible dignity of that Era in fields of Science, Engineering, Medicine, Art & Music, Literature & Philosophy and obviously Dharma; hence forming the rigid pillars providing support and intangible aura of nourishment to a mammoth achievable humane goal called KNOWLEDGE!

As discussed in my previous article , I tried to showcase a droplet out of the ocean of information stored in Vedas, as how certain inseparable and important aspects of Mathematics which are claimed to be lately invented or discovered, were already described in the Vedas dating back to around 2000 BC. Few similar facts related to certain discoveries and inventions during the Vedic Era is something which I would like to share in this article of mine.

Let’s start with VYMAANIKA SHAASTRA formulated by MAHARISHI BHARADWAJ on around 1500 BC and it consists of 3000 shlokas and 8 chapters.

Vymaanika Shaastra was all regarding ‘vimanas’, meaning flying vehicles and covered various descriptions, illustrations and details of topics related to aerodynamics, aerospace technology and engineering, and all these were composed several centuries before December 17, 1903, the day on which Orville and Wilbur Wright invented Aeroplane.

The topics covered include, “definition of an airplane, a pilot, aerial routes, food, clothing, metals, metal production, mirrors and their uses in wars, varieties of machinery and yantras, planes like ‘mantrik’, ‘tantrik’, and ‘kritak’” and four planes called Shakuna, Sundara, Rukma, and Tripura are described in greater detail. The extant text is claimed to be only a small (one-fortieth) part of a larger work Yantra Sarvaswa “All about machines”.

Later since 1914 AD onwards, these scriptures were decoded and rewritten for better understanding and Vymaanika Shaastra became one of the special topics of interest amongst researchers and scientists.

It was just a fraction of glimpses of engineering credentials stored in our most rich and invaluable scriptures, the Vedas. Now let’s take a glance in the accomplishments in the field of medicine whose doctrines are hymnatically embedded in the sacred Vedas.

Medicine, surgery and body analysis and treatment roots their basics from Ayurveda and in the ancient era, Pranacharya Charaka and Acharya Sushruta played iconic roles in these segments whose proof is the compilation and embodiment of Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita.

In this article Charaka Samhita is taken to be the topic of discussion.

Charaka Samhita or Compendium of Charaka is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda. Although the dates of composition of Charaka Samhita are uncertain, yet, Meulenbeld’s History of Indian Medical Literature dates it between fourth century to second century BCE, while the Dridhabala Revision and completion dates it to the sixth century BCE. Traces of series of hymns of Charaka Samhita is found in Atharva Veda whose compilation dates back to 1000 to 1200 BCE.

This ancient text consists of eight books and one hundred and twenty chapters. It describes ancient theories related to human body, etiology, symptomology and therapeutics for a wide range of diseases along with sections on the importance of diet, hygiene, preventions, medical education, the teamwork of a physician – nurse – patient necessary for recovery to fine health.

The extant text has eight sthāna (books), totalling 120 chapters. The text includes a table of contents embedded in its verses, stating the names and describing the nature of the eight books, followed by a listing of the 120 chapters.

These eight books are ~

  1. Sutra Sthana (General principles) – 30 chapters deal with general principles, philosophy, definitions, prevention through healthy living, and the goals of the text.

  1. Nidana Sthana (Pathology) – 8 chapters on causes of diseases.

  1. Vimana Sthana (Specific determination) 8 chapters contain training of a physician, ethics of medical practice, pathology, diet and nourishment, taste of medicines.

  1. Śarira Sthana (Anatomy) – 8 chapters describe embryology & anatomy of a human body (with a section on other living beings).

  1. Indriya Sthana (Sensory organ based prognosis) – 12 chapters elaborate on diagnosis & prognosis, mostly based on sensory response of the patient.

  1. Chikitsa Sthana (Therapeutics) – 30 chapters deal with medicines and treatment of diseases.

  1. Kalpa Sthana (Pharmaceutics and toxicology) – 12 chapters describe pharmacy, the preparation and dosage of medicine, signs of their abuse, and dealing with poisons.

  1. Siddhi Sthana (Success in treatment) – 12 chapters describe signs of cure, hygiene and healthier living.

The text starts with Sūtra sthāna which deals with fundamentals and basic principles of Ayurveda practice. Unique scientific contributions credited to the Charaka Saṃhitā include:

  • A rational approach to the causation and cure of disease;
  • Introduction of objective methods of clinical examination.

Charak Samhita is a subject of thorough study, analysis and research since last few centuries and many segments of the compendium has been decoded and interpreted for the availability of the resources to general public.

Similar to the Vymaanika Shaastra and Charaka Samhita, numerous doctrines and compendiums forms the integral part of the Vedas, like, Sankhya Darshan by Kapil Muni, Aryabhatiyan by Aryabhatta, Sushruta Samhita by Sushruta, Lilavati & Bijaganita by Bhaskaracharya and Panch Siddhant & Bruhad Samhita by Varahamihira. All these compendiums, doctrines and scriptures reminds of a saying that RISHIS WERE ALWAYS RIGHT!

||VEDAS depicting MATHEMATICS||~Mention of Modern Mathematical Theorems in Vedas!!

It was a very common and well believed dialogue of our elders or folks of previous generations that ” Vedas have it all” or ” One who knows Vedas knows everything! “.

Initially these talks were subjects of ignorance as far as Modern Scientific approach was taken as pivot point but gradually many discoveries and sequential series of decoding activities of prehistoric Vedic quotes, shlokas and mantras has been able to clear many misconceptions and ambiguities and these pre-historic scriptures have proved themselves to be flamboyant enough to attract global interest in their exploration both at scientific and spiritual front.

Just for instance, there are Baudhayana Sutras which are compilation of Vedic Sanskrit texts related to dharma, daily rituals, mathematics etc. and are one of the earliest texts of the ‘sutra’ genre.

The Baudhayana sūtras consist of six texts:

the Śrautasûtra, in 19 Praśnas (questions),

the Karmāntasûtra in 20 Adhyāyas(chapters),

the Dvaidhasûtra in 4 Praśnas,

the Grihyasutra in 4 Praśnas,

the Dharmasûtra in 4 Praśnas

the Śulbasûtra in 3 Adhyāyas.

The Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra is noted for containing several early mathematical results, including an approximation of the square root of 2 and the statement of a version of the Pythagorean theorem.

Pythagorean theorem is also referred to as Baudhayana theorem. The most notable of the rules (the Sulbasūtra-s do not contain any proofs for the rules which they describe, since they are sūtra-s, formulae, concise) in the Baudhāyana Sulba Sūtrasays:

दीर्घचतुरश्रस्याक्ष्णया रज्जु: पार्श्र्वमानी तिर्यग् मानी च यत् पृथग् भूते कुरूतस्तदुभयं करोति ॥

dīrghachatursrasyākṣaṇayā rajjuḥ pārśvamānī, tiryagmānī,
cha yatpṛthagbhūte kurutastadubhayāṅ karoti.

The lines are to be referring to a rectangle, although some interpretations consider this to refer to a square. In either case, it states that the square of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares of the sides. If restricted to right-angled isosceles triangles, however, it would constitute a less general claim, but the text seems to be quite open to unequal sides.

If this refers to a rectangle, it is the earliest recorded statement of the Pythagorean theorem.

Baudhāyana also provides a non-axiomatic demonstration using a rope measure of the reduced form of the Pythagorean theorem for an isosceles right triangle.

Circling the square

Another problem tackled by Baudhāyana is that of finding a circle whose area is the same as that of a square (the reverse of squaring the circle). His sūtra i.58 gives this construction:


Square root of 2

Baudhāyana i.61-2 (elaborated in Āpastamba Sulbasūtra i.6) gives the length of the diagonal of a square in terms of its sides, which is equivalent to a formula for the square root of 2:

Other theorems include: Diagonals of rectangle bisect each other, diagonals of rhombus bisect at right angles, area of a square formed by joining the middle points of a square is half of original, the midpoints of a rectangle joined forms a rhombus whose area is half the rectangle, etc.

It should be noted that the emphasis on rectangles and squares; this arises from the need to specify yajña bhūmikās—i.e. the altar on which a rituals were conducted, including fire offerings (yajña). This is an aspect of Vaastu Shastras and Shilpa Shastras. These theroms are derived from those texts.

Since a long time various studies and research works are being conducted on the above mentioned sutras and shastras like the following-

Various such sutras, shlokas and scripts are still to be analysed, decoded and yet to be understood which proclaim the richness and command of mathematicians, scientists and thinkers of Vedic Era, eloquently, over various fields of literature, mathematics, science and arts in a vivid and specialised mode of approach.